Newsletter No. 366

8 No. 366, 4.11.2010 Prof. Wu Wei shan 下回〈十方吐露〉將訪問莫樹錦教授 Prof. Mok Shu-kam Tony will be featured in the next instalment of ‘TEN QUESTIONS FOR’. 預告 Coming 1 可以談一下和中大結緣的經過嗎? How did you become acquainted with CUHK? 早在1997年,田家炳先生曾帶我到中大校園看看。2000年, 我趁來港之便,順道參觀了中大,從那時候起就跟中大續 有交流。兩年後,金耀基校長訪問南京大學,看到我大量 的作品,後來就透過龔雪因先生訪問學人計劃請我到新亞 書院講課。我又先後造了錢穆、李福善、李卓敏、楊振寧、 饒宗頤等先生的像,今年是高錕教授。 In 1997, Mr. Tin Ka-ping took me to the CUHK campus to have a look. In 2000, I paid a visit to the campus while in Hong Kong, and this kicked off my interactions with the University. In 2002, Prof. Ambrose Y.C. King, impressed by my works which he saw at Nanjing University, invited me to lecture at New Asia College as a S.Y. Chung Visiting Fellow. I have sculpted the likeness of personages connected with the University, including Ch’ien Mu, Li Fook-sean Simon, Choh-ming Li, Yang Chen-ning, Jao Tsung-i, and this year, Charles K. Kao. 2 中大是否擺放雕塑的理想環境? Is the University an ideal venue for sculptures? 中大是塊科學與人文結合的寶地,背靠五千年中華文化, 面對國際社會發展,容得下饒公這種文化巨人,也容得下 高錕教授這種前瞻的科學偉人,是一個最適合放雕像的地 方。今天,每位中大人實際上都是用這種精神為自己、也 是為中文大學的整體塑造一尊雕像。 The Chinese University is a hallowed land where science meets the humanities. Backed by 5,000 years of Chinese culture and guided by a vision of international development, it has accommodated cultural and scientific visionaries such as Jao and Kao. This makes CUHK an ideal haven for sculptures. In fact this very spirit is fueling all members of the University to sculpt their own future as well as the University’s future. 3 李卓敏校長雕像的選址可有特別意義? Is there any reason behind the choice of venue for founding Vice-Chancellor Dr. Choh-ming Li’s sculpture? 中國文化研究所建築風格融合中西古今,庭院裏有魚有水 有小橋,我建議種一棵樹,讓李先生坐在旁邊,寓意前人 種樹,後人乘涼。這樹當初不容易種,因為土不深,旁邊 是水泥地,現在長得生氣勃勃,就像中大艱苦奮鬥才有今 天。香港過去是文化沙漠,中大恰如沙漠上建起來的一片 綠洲,創校校長的像放在這裏,饒富意義。 The Institute of Chinese Studies (ICS) features Chinese and Western, ancient and modern architectural styles. The courtyard has a pond with fish and a bridge. I suggested planting a tree there for Dr. Li to sit next to, implying that our ancestors sowed the seeds so descendants can enjoy the shade. Planting the tree was difficult, because the soil was shallow and there was concrete right beside it. But it’s thriving now, just like the University after weathering the storms. The Chinese University was an oasis in the cultural desert that was Hong Kong. This makes the ICS an apt location for the statue of its founding Vice-Chancellor. 4 城市雕塑應有甚麼功能? What functions should urban sculptures carry? 城市雕塑的首要功能不是美化,還有藝術性的精神導向, 要為城市塑造紀念和標記,譬如與城市關係重大的歷史 人物和時刻。像布魯塞爾的《小尿童》,小小的一個銅像卻 成為二次世界大戰的愛國象徵;又如中國的人民英雄紀念 碑,都與歷史有關。 The main function of urban sculptures is not to beautify. They are art pieces that give spiritual guidance. They serve as landmarks and they commemorate historical figures in a city or important moments in the city’s development. The small bronze sculpture Manneken Pis (‘urinating little boy’) has become a symbol of patriotism in Brussels. The Monument to the People’s Heroes in China is also tied to history. 5 你曾談到城市雕塑的科學管理;藝術是可以管理的嗎? You talked about the scientific management of urban sculptures. Can art be managed? 中國近年高速發展,很多城市都利用雕塑作為文化建設 的體現,但人才有限,全國持有從事城市級雕塑的許可證 的只一千多人,可城市有六百多個,需求量大,作品質素參 差,放置凌亂。作為藝術,創作是自由的;但是作為城市公 共藝術的一部分,還是要符合廣大市民的期望、時代的要 求。怎樣去做,擺放的地點與時間,都應有策劃和管理。 China has been advancing rapidly and sculptures are often used to showcase cultural development in its cities. Yet there are only some 1,000 people with permits to do urban sculpture in the whole country, and over 600 cities, so standards vary and there’s no regulation governing their placement. Artists should have free reign to create art but when this art occupies an urban public space, it should meet the expectations of that city and certain requirements, such as how it should be done, where and when to show it. These should be planned and managed. 6 塑像的邀請無日無之,取捨的準則在哪裏? How do you choose which commissions to accept? 作為藝術,可為任何人造像。但是作為歷史的認可,這個 人物一定要有功有德有言,否則就不值得。我們不要把有 限的空間和時間用在沒有意義的事情上。我所雕塑的人物 都對人類有大大小小的貢獻。在中國、在國際上都有人出 非常多的錢讓我造像,我都謝絕了。而我想中文大學訂下 的標準也就是我的標準。 If it’s purely art, you can do a sculpture of anyone. But if it’s a historical sculpture, the subject has to be someone who has made an impact and who is virtuous. We should not waste time and space on meaningless things. All my subjects have contributed in ways big or small to humanity. I have turned down numerous requests from China and overseas. I believe CUHK’s criteria for commissioning a sculpture is also my criteria. 7 怎樣入手雕塑人像? How do you begin sculpting a figure? 我對楊振寧先生和饒公很熟悉,閉上眼睛也能想像他們的 樣子,但不少人都對他們有主觀印象。我要把對這個人的 認識濃縮,找到最能代表的動作神情,透過雕塑表現他的 精神,但不是停留於個人的觀感,還要考慮到別人和對象 本人的感受。譬如跟李福善先生造像,我認為大法官該是 很嚴肅的,但他不以為然,希望可帶點笑容,我接納了他的 意見,效果讓他很滿意。 I am familiar with Prof. Yang Chen-ning and Prof. Jao Tsung-i. I can imagine their faces with my eyes closed. But many people have different impressions of them. I need to distill my knowledge of the person, identify the most representative expression or posture, and use my work to convey his essence. I shouldn’t just consider my personal impression. When sculpting for Mr. Li Fook-sean Simon, I had thought that a judge should be solemn, but he, on the other hand, favoured a smiling mien. I complied and he was very happy with the result. 8 怎樣決定用甚麼雕塑手法? How do you decide on the style? 這是因對象的特徵而異的。我造《老子》,十八米高,腹部 中空,人走得進去,那就是把他概念化:虛懷若谷,又包容萬 象。英國費茨威廉博物館收藏的《孔子》,淳厚正氣,是強調 倫理的一個文化符號,造型沒有瑣碎細節,就造成一個紀念 碑。至於《魯迅》,刀法強硬爽快,就像魯迅的硬骨頭。 It depends on the subject. The Loazi sculpture is 18m tall and hollow. You can go inside it. The idea is to turn him into the concepts he embodies: humility and tolerance. Confucius , which was acquired by the Fitzwilliam Museum in England, has an honest and upright visage—a monument-like ethical symbol with no excessive details. As for Lu Xun , the cuts are as strong as his will. 9 出色雕塑家有甚麼條件? What makes a great sculptor? 首先要有理想,跟民族、整個人類共通,第二要有廣博深 厚的文化修養,第三要有高度技巧。三者融會,缺一不可。 藝術創作要能反映人文主義精神、成為時代標記,必須對 人類文化有認識,才會站得高,內涵才會深。 You need to have ideals, to be connected with the nation and with humanity. You also need to be deeply cultured and technically strong. An artistic creation should reflect the humanistic spirit and become an emblem of the times. Breadth of perspective and depth of substance require understanding of human culture. 10 那你本人的文化滋養來自哪裏? Your influences? 我1962年出生於文化世家,適逢文化大革命,但家父還是 每天讓我背一首古詩,才能吃早飯上學,我倒不以為苦, 還唸出興趣來。家中藏書豐富,我自小隨便翻看。父親有 一個小本子,把《紅樓夢》等名著裏一些警句抄下來給我 們看。這樣薰陶下來,對古文化產生了情感。我自九十年代 開始出國,去過五十多個國家,看過各種博物館,豐富了自 己。我談不上廣博深厚,但對文學、心理學、哲學、藝術學 都有所涉足;油畫、國畫、版畫、書法、雕塑都做過,也在 大學教過書,接觸過不同文化背景的人。在創作過程中,把 這些感受不自覺的鎔鑄到作品裏,含量自然就不一樣。 I was born in 1962 to a cultured family. Although it was the Cultural Revolution, my father would make me recite a classical poem every day before breakfast and school. I actually grew to enjoy it. We had many books at home which I was in the habit of flipping through as a child. They left an impression on me even if I didn’t understand the words. My father kept a notebook on which he had written down quotes from classics. Growing up in this environment, I became interested in ancient culture. I began, in the 1990s, to travel outside the country. I’ve been to some 50 counties, visited various museums. I’m not erudite but I have some knowledge of literature, psychology, philosophy and art studies. I’ve done oils, ink and brush, woodblock printing, calligraphy, and sculpture. I’ve taught in universities and met people from different cultural backgrounds. To have these influences going into one’s work, albeit imperceptibly, is enriching. 吳為山