Newsletter No. 364

8 No. 364, 4.10.2010 Prof. Sian Griffiths 葛菲雪 下回〈十方吐露〉將訪問沈祖堯校長 Prof. Joseph J.Y. Sung will be featured in the next instalment of ‘TEN QUESTIONS FOR’. 預告 Coming 1 公共衞生和基層醫療究竟是甚麼? What exactly is public health and primary care? 公共衞生關乎人口、預防、提供良好服務,以及在疫症發生 時保護公眾。基層醫療則指第一線的個人護理服務,當問 題出現時,及早給予治療,協助預防疾病,從而使社區保持 健康,並持續提供適切的關顧。 Public health is about populations, prevention, providing good services, protecting the public at times of epidemics. Primary care is about first﹣contact individual care in the community, helping to prevent illness by early treatment should problems arise, trying to maintain health in the community and providing ongoing care in the community. 2 可以說一下這兩個範疇當今最新的全球研究趨向嗎? What are the latest global research trends in these areas? 不少公共衞生的重大問題都圍繞肥胖症的蔓延而出現,我 們也關注吸煙引致的疾病。另一健康威脅是傳染病,香港 在2003年經歷了沙士,去年又有人類豬型流感。在中國,我 們也擔心肺結核和愛滋病。此外,我們亦有興趣研究自然 災害對公共衞生的影響。換言之,研究課題有迫在眉睫的, 也有長圖遠慮的,而我們大部分的工作都與推廣健康生活 模式和保護市民有關,即圍繞食水、空氣、食物的清潔等環 保問題和工作場所防護等的研究和教學。 Many of the big issues in public health are centred around the obesity epidemic. We are also concerned with smoking-related diseases. Another threat is emerging infections. In Hong Kong we had SARS in 2003; last year we had H1N1. In China, we are also worried about TB and HIV. Another area of research we are interested in is the public health impact of natural disasters. So there are acute issues as well as longer-term issues. A lot of our work is about promoting healthy lifestyles and protecting the public which includes research and teaching about environmental protection issues such as clean water, clean air, clean food, and workplace protection. 3 作為香港首間集教研和諮詢服務於一身的公共衞生機 構,學院成立以來最大的成就是甚麼? What have been the school’s greatest achievements as the first institution to provide teaching, consultation and research in public health in Hong Kong? 我們以教育服務為榮。公共衞生理學士課程是我們創辦 的,首批學生剛完成第一年課程,連同早前碩士和博士課 程,提供了全面的公共衞生教育。公共衞生也可作副修科目 和通識教育,即是說我們教授的對象不局限於醫科生。另 一項成就是我們的研究成果,院內同仁積極從事公共衞生 重要課題的研究。其三是對弱勢社群的人道支援,我們也 與內地建立了聯繫,而當中又與北京、上海、浙江、重慶及廣 州等地交往最為頻繁。 We are proud of our education record because we created the BSc in public health and the first students have just completed their first year. That allows us to provide comprehensive education from the BSc, through the MPH, to PhDs. Public health can also be taken as a minor course and as general education, which means we reach out beyond medical students. Another achievement is our research record. Our researchers are active in all the key areas of public health. The third is the humanitarian initiative through which we reach out to poorer communities. We’re also proud of our links with mainland China and have active links to Beijing, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Chongqing and Guangzhou amongst other places. 4 學院的最大挑戰是甚麼? What have been its greatest challenges? 最大的挑戰在於如何動員市民關注公共衞生及基層醫療 (家庭醫學)。以基因療法來治療罕見疾病無疑是很有趣, 也廣受傳媒注意,相較起來,呼籲大家關注肥胖、上網成癮 及酗酒,就沒有那麼吸引。我們處理的醫學範疇沒有那麼 戲劇性的發展,不過加強公共衞生意識對未來社會的福祉 十分重要。我們的工作是利他的,你不會因從事公共衞生而 致富,從事公共衞生的人一般都對社會有一份強烈的使命 感,而致力協助被剝削的一群。 The biggest challenge has been to engage people in public health and also in primary care (family medicine). Using genetic therapy to cure some rare disease seems much more interesting, particularly to the media, than promoting awareness of obesity, internet addiction and alcohol. We deal with the less dramatic aspects of medicine. But public health awareness is very important for the future good of society. The work we do is fairly altruistic. You don’t get rich doing public health. People involved in public health tend to be highly motivated by social values. We advocate for deprived groups in society. 5 過去十年,香港的社會及人口變化怎樣影響學院的工 作? How has the school’s work been affected by Hong Kong’s social and demographical changes in the last decade? 我們的人口愈趨老化,香港的生育率更是全球最低。在壽 命愈長而人們所受的壓力愈大的雙重影響下,精神健康問 題亦更趨嚴重。所以,最大的挑戰是年老而也能保持健康。 我們亦關心貧富懸殊的問題。貧窮一般意味着健康轉差。 另一課題是人口流動對公共衞生的衝擊,珠三角有逾億的 流動人口,我們正研究這地區人口的各種衞生問題。 We have an increasingly ageing population. The fertility rate in Hong Kong is the lowest in the world. With a longer living and stressed population, mental health is a growing problem. The big challenge is how we can stay healthy as we get older. We are also concerned with the widening gap between rich and poor. Poverty usually means poorer health. Another topic is the impact of migration on health. The Pearl River Delta has over a hundred million migrants and we are studying different aspects of health among this population. 6 可否告訴大家中大公共衞生的人道工作? Could you tell us more about the CUHK public health humanitarian initiative? 這方面的工作是由陳英凝教授領導的,得到多位同事支 持。我們的理學士和碩士課程都會教授全球公共衞生,其 中包括人道行動、貧窮人口的需要、不公正及不平等。我們 的重要目標之一就是加強對不公正及不平等的認識,除授 課外,也與非政府組織保持聯繫,如紅十字會和無國界醫 生。我們最近剛獲擇善基金捐款。陳教授亦帶領學生實地 考察,好像最近她又回到四川去了,我們在那兒的農村社群 開展了不同的研究,又與本港衞生署和醫院管理局合辦暑 期學校和其他課程。 Prof. Emily Chan has been leading it with the support of many colleagues. Within our BSc and MPH, we teach global public health and we include humanitarian response, the needs of poorer populations, inequities and inequalities. One of our big themes is promoting awareness of inequality and inequity. We run lectures and we’re linked to NGOs such as Red Cross and Médecins sans Frontières. We have just got a donation from the ZeShan Foundation. Emily also takes students to the field, e.g., she’s just been back to Sichuan where we’ve been conducting different studies in rural communities. We also run a summer school and other courses jointly with the Department of Health and the Hospital Authority. 7 可否告訴我們你在哪裏出生?在那兒長大的生活是怎 樣的? Do you mind telling us where you were born? What was it like growing up there? 我於1952年在倫敦出生。還記得小時候看到母親手持糧 票領配給的樣子,其後,大家的生活才比較優裕一點。我在 1970年上大學,正值激進學生的年代,大抵就是那時候吸 收的政治思想,使我成為激進學生吧。當你在英國長大,自 會有強烈的社會價值觀。我還記得孩提時代倫敦的煙霧,所 以,當看到香港糟透了的空氣質素,我深信是可以補救的。 倫敦已淨化了空氣和泰晤士河,這便是控制污染的好例子。 I was born in London, in 1952. I remember seeing my mom with ration cards when I was very little, then we all became more affluent. I went to university in 1970 at the time of the radical student period. I suppose that’s where I picked up my political ideas as a radical student. When you grow up in the UK, you have a very strong awareness of social values. I remember the smog in London when I was a child. So when I see the bad air quality here, I know something could be done about it. London cleaned up its air and the River Thames. These are good lessons in pollution control. 8 可否告訴我們你的名字「Sian」的來源? Could you tell us the origin of ‘Sian’? 我的家族為凱爾特人,而Sian就是威爾斯語的Jane。父親 是外科醫生,在威爾斯長大,說威爾斯語,其後轉到倫敦工 作,他給我和我的兄弟都起了威爾斯名字。 My family are Celts, and my name just means Jane in Welsh. My father was a Welsh surgeon who went to work in London. He had grown up speaking Welsh, and he gave me and my brothers Welsh names. 9 學院未來有甚麼計劃? Future plans for the school? 學院會繼續發展在公共衞生的教研專長,致力建立全球和 地區性聯繫。我們需認清楚強項所在,並加以深化,當然也 需面向世界,確保我們的強項備受肯定。香港是中國一部 分,與內地合作極端重要。中國有十四億人口,相對於雖較 富裕但只有七百萬人的香港來說,公共衞生的挑戰要大得 多。學院扮演着倡議者的重要角色,確保市民了解空氣污染 和食物安全對公共衞生的危害,以及健康工作環境和兒童 健康成長環境的重要。 The school needs to continue to develop its expertise in research and in public health education, particularly building global and regional links. We need to be clear about our areas of expertise and develop them in more depth. We need to make sure we look outwards, and ensure our strengths are recognized. Working with the mainland is extremely important. Hong Kong is part of China, and with 1.4 billion people, the public health challenge is much bigger than a city of relative affluence, with only seven million people. The school has a crucial role to play in advocacy—making sure people are aware of the risk to public health of air pollution and food safety, and the importance of having a healthy working environment and healthy environments for children to grow up in. 10 身為公共衞生學醫生,你的「烏托邦」是怎樣的? Your ‘utopia’ as a doctor in public health? 人人健康快樂,心境安泰。 Everybody healthy and happy, and at peace. 公共衞生及基層醫療學院院長 Director, School of Public Health and Primary Care